Coffee Glossary

1st Wave

The first wave of coffee being spread throughout the world occurred back in the 1800s. This is the time where the consumption of coffee is widespread at a global scale. Folgers was one of the brands that pioneered the widespread production of coffee. During this time, quality was not observed yet, which is why high quality coffee nowadays could be sold at a low price during the first wave of coffee. The reason for this is to easily make coffee known to every people in the world, which is very effective until this day.

2nd Wave

The second wave of coffee started in the 1970s. This is the time where well-known coffee brands such as Starbucks emerged. The market at this point is more focused on how people “experience” the quality of coffee beans, rather than just introducing coffee in general just like what was done in the first wave of coffee. This is where specialty coffee started, as well as the discovery of the primary criteria in defining each type of coffee bean drink and roast.

3rd Wave

The third wave was a term discovered in the early-2000s because of sophisticated coffee consumers who are more specific when it comes to the drink that they taste. This is more focused on the experience for high-end consumers, but still more on the price by those who cannot afford expensive coffee beans. This is where people are more interested in knowing where the coffee beans originated, or what beans are used by some of the most popular brands and their products.

A

AA

AA is a pair of capital As that serve as a term for describing the size of coffee beans. These are often used to know if the coffee bean is large or not, with the term AA+ to define larger coffee bean sizes.

Acidity/Acid

Acid is one of the primary factors that define a coffee bean in terms of all its aspects once brewed into a coffee drink. Acidity is based on the tartness of the coffee once drank. High acid levels are found in light roasts, while very low to no acidity on dark roasts. Acidity, along with body, flavor and aroma, are the primary factors that differential coffee beans, and is often used by expert coffee tasters.

Affogato

Affogato is a coffee drink that’s prepared with ice cream topped on a shot of espresso. It is often treated as a drink, but can be a dessert as well.

After Dinner Roast

After dinner roast is an American term used for very dark types of coffee bean roast. The acidity of the coffee lowers dramatically if the roast is darker, which is why after dinner roast was ensured to have extremely low to no acidity at all. Nowadays, this is often considered as an old term for darker coffee bean roasts.

Aged Coffee

This is a type of coffee that underwent a traditional technique where the coffee beans are aged for extended periods of time, and is said to be longer than aging mature and old drop coffee. Aging techniques can reduce the acidity of the coffee beans once brewed. Aged coffee can also be made at a faster rate using modern techniques such as exposing the coffee to moist air.

Alajuela

Alajuela is a market term for one of the best coffee beans grown in Costa Rica.

Altura

Altura is the market term for Mexican coffee beans that are grown in high-altitude areas, where coffee beans of the finest quality are often grown. Altura means “heights” in the Spanish language.

American Roast

The American roast is a type of coffee beans that are roasted to be medium brown. Acidity can be lowered through roasting techniques, where darker roasts have lower acid levels. This is set at a medium acidity rate.

Americano

Americano is a term used for making the “Americano” flavor for coffee brews. This is one of the most common coffee found in menus at different cafes around the world, and in some restaurants as well. This type of espresso coffee has higher volume than the typical espresso because hot water is added on it. This is known to be lower in acidity as a result of adding water.

Ankola

This is an old term used to the world-famous Arabica coffee beans found in Sumatra. Sumatrans often use this term rather than using the word Arabica before. But due to the worldwide recognition for the term, Arabica is often used to avoid confusion.

Antigua

Antigua coffee beans is a market term used for one of the most popular coffee beans found in Guatemala. Guatemala Antigua is the place where the Antigua coffee beans are grown in abundance, hence the name.

Aquapulp

Aquapulp is a term used for a technique where coffee beans are extracted out of the sticky coffee berry flesh. The fruit pulp is often removed through the means of mechanically extracting the coffee. The mechanical technique of aquapulp eliminates the need to use traditional techniques such as fermentation, and then the fruit pulp (also known as mucilage) is washed away to extract the coffee bean.

Arabian Mocha

Arabian Mocha is a type of coffee that originated from the Arabian peninsula, around the Red Sea. The location where Arabian Mocha beans are grown are high-altitude areas, particularly the mountainous areas around Yemen. Arabian Mocha is the oldest cultivated coffee bean, which is known for its winy and flavorful acidity, and has a full body.

Arabica

Arabica is the name of the most popular coffee bean strain that originated in Southern America. This is the earliest known coffee bean strain, and is the most grown among all coffee types. Nowadays, 70% coffee beans used in various coffee brands around the world are composed solely of Arabica coffee beans due to its flavor. Most fancy coffees are made of Arabica coffee beans.

Aroma

Aroma is one of the primary categories to define the overall quality of a coffee bean or drink. Aroma is the scent of the coffee beans produced by brewing coffee with hot water. Though coffee can be defined by its aroma once brewed, but those who are more specific in defining different coffee types can notice differences in aroma. Coffee beans have different aroma once brewed, and is often criticized by expert coffee tasters.

Arusha

Arusha is a market term for the coffee found in high-altitude regions in Tanzania, particularly those grown in Mt. Meru

Automatic Filter-Drip

Automatic Filter-Drip coffee makers are brewers that are automatically heated, and has a filtration system where heated water goes to the coffee beans placed on a filter. The water and coffee beans that are heated are then transferred straight down to a kettle for the coffee to be served.

B

Balance

Balance is a very important term used when tasting coffee. The flavor, aroma, acidity and body are all primary factors in determining the quality of coffee, and balanced is used on coffee if there is none of the four factors that overwhelms the rest. Balance still means that the coffee should still be distinctive through the factors if they are all in good quality.

Bani

Bani is a market term used for the low acidity coffee found in the Dominican Republic.

Barahona

Barahona is a market term used for the coffee beans grown and sold on the southwest region of the
Dominican Republic. Barahona is one of the finest coffee beans grown in the country.

Barista

A barista is a professional that is highly proficient in operating the espresso bar in cafes and some restaurants. Barista is an Italian term, but has gained worldwide recognition as a profession.=

Batch Roaster

A batch roaster is a coffee making apparatus that can roast huge amounts of coffee beans at the same time.

Bean

The bean, or more known as coffee bean, is the seed of the coffee berry. The coffee bean has a very bitter flavor and is never sweet once roasted, particularly when roasted dark. The roasted beans are then ground to be prepared into a coffee drink that we all love in the mornings, or when we feel like it.

Bird-Friendly Coffee

The bird-friendly term is used for coffee that’s grown under a shade, such as a canopy. Canopies are built to share the coffee beans as they grown, as it potentially improves the flavor. The term bird-friendly literally means that the coffee tree becomes friendly to birds, as the canopies give enough share for birds to stay onto the tree for extended periods. Central American countries do this to migrate song birds. Arabica coffee bean trees are often grown to be bird-friendly, as it enhances its already-rich flavor.

Bitter

A term used for the taste that’s not sweet, but has a harsh feel onto the tongue. Dark roast coffee beans are often made to produce a bitter ground for brewing coffee with a strong, bitter taste.

Blade Ground

Blade ground is a term used for coffee beans that are ground using the blade grinder. The blade grinder uses a propeller blade to finely grind coffee.

Blend

The blend is a mixture of a variety of coffee beans. Two coffee beans that are ground and mixed together is already considered as a blend.

Bloom

Blooming is the process of pouring water onto the ground coffee to de-gas the grounds.

Body

Body is one of the four primary categories for defining the quality of coffee, along with flavor, aroma and acidity. Body is the feeling of the coffee’s richness and thickness of the liquid once its drank. Texture also counts as a body. It is often defined as think, juicy, delicate, and heavy.

Bourbon

Bourbon is a type of Arabica coffee, and is considered as one of the top coffee beans under the Arabica strain. Bourbon coffee bean is named after the island of the same name, which is located around South America. Bourbon Santos is a variety of Bourbon coffee beans that is considered as the best quality among all of the Bourbon types of Arabica coffee beans, and is often sold in Brazil.

Brazil

Brazil is one of the major manufacturers and distributors of coffee around the world. This is where Bourbon Santos, one of the highest quality Arabica coffee beans, are sold at the best price. Brazil coffee is also known to be carelessly picked for the sake of quantity. Most Brazil coffee beans are often grown at low-altitude areas due to its geography.

Brew

Brewing is the process of generating coffee using hot water and the coffee grounds. This is done when steeping coffee or when using an coffee maker. Brewing involves various factors such as ratio, temperature and the processing time.

Brewing Ratio

The brewing ratio is the ratio of water and coffee mass when extracting the coffee out of the two. The measurement used for the brewing ratio is grams per liter, or g/L. Some would still use the American standard for measuring ratio, which is x:x.

Brewing Temperature

Brewing temperature is a term used for measuring the heat of the water used for extraction. The required temperature for brewing coffee from the coffee maker, or when steeping it. The right temperature when brewing should be around 92 to 96 degree Celsius. High temperature brewing releases the unique roasted flavor that coffee usually provides, while low temperature brewing focuses on tartness and fruitiness of the coffee ground.

Brewing Time

The brewing time is the amount of time allotted for the water to extract the coffee out of the grounds. The only brewing time that should be measured is the coffee extraction process.

Brown Roast

Brown roast is also referred to as medium brown roast and American roast.

Burr Ground

Burr ground is a process of grinding coffee beans using a burr grinder. A burr grinder is made of two sharp shredding discs that are adjustable to make grinding more efficient.

C

Cafe Au Lait

Cafe Au Lait is a coffee made from 1/3 drip coffee and whipped cream.

Caffeine

Caffeine is a compound that’s composed of alkaloids that’s always present in coffee of any variant, though some are found at lower levels. Caffeine is one of the reasons why people feel energized when drinking their first cup of coffee every morning. Caffeine is a stimulant for the brain, and is higher in content when the coffee is more bitter. The extraction method in coffee making has a huge factor in extracting the caffeine content in every cup of coffee.

Caffe Americano

See Americano

Caffe Latte

Caffe latte is a famous coffee drink made from espresso and hot milk set at a 1:3 ratio, respectively.

Cappuccino

Cappuccino is a type of espresso drink with hot frothy milk. A bit of cinnamon is optionally added to this type of coffee.

Caracas

Caracas is a type of coffee brew often found in Venezuela.

Caracol

Caracol is also known as peaberry. This is what’s called to the round bean that’s formed as a single seed in coffee cherries, as opposed to the more common double-seeded cherries. The caracol is oftentimes separated from the other coffee beans as it has a higher level of acidity that can affect the flavor of the regular coffee beans. But still, caracol is still roasted into coffee and has a good flavor in it as well.

Caturra

The caturra is a variety of the Arabica coffee bean. Its difference with other types of Arabica beans, such as Bourbon, is that Cattura can grow at a faster rate. It is also superior than other Arabica beans in most aspects, as it is more disease-resistant, and can produce more coffee beans.

Celebes

Celebes is the former name of a coffee bean strain found at Sulawesi island, which is located at Indonesia. The celebes coffee beans are often grown in highland areas. It is known for its full body, which is evident by its thickness once brewed. It also has a low acidity thanks to the environment where it was raised, and has a very expensive flavor which makes it very unique. This is known to have a distinctive earthy flavor.

Chaff

This is the inner skin of the coffee berry that gets stuck onto the fruit during the processing of coffee grounds.

Cherry

This is the other term for the coffee bean fruit. Each cherries contain two coffee beans inside at most times.

Chiapas

Chiapas are a coffee bean strain that grew in Mexico, and is known for its acidity. Though it has a delicate flavor, its acidity is noted to be at an average level with a thin body. This is also known as Tapachula coffee beans, where the name came from the exact place where the Chiapas coffee beans grow.

Chicory

The chicory is the endive’s root. It is roasted and ground to be blended with coffee beans, particularly those sold in New Orleans.

Chipinga

It is a region located at Zimbabwe that produces some of the finest coffee in the country.

Cibao

This is a market term used for a low acid coffee found in the Dominican Republic.

Cinnamon Roast

Cinnamon roast is also known as light roast, and has a strong level of tartness compared to most roasting types.

City Roast

City roast beans are darker than the normal beans sold in America, but is known to be lighter than most dark roasts such as those that are typically used in espresso machines. It is also commonly known as a “medium” roast.

Clean

A term used in coffee tasting to know that the coffee bean does not have any defects on its flavor.

Coatepec

This is a market term used for a washed coffee located in the mountainous regions of the Veracruz State in Mexico.

Coban

Coban is a market term of a reputed coffee bean in Guatemala.

Coffea Arabica

See Arabica

Coffea Canephora

Coffea Canephora is also called as Robusta coffee. Robusta coffee is one of the most popular coffee bean strains around the world, and is known to be one of the main coffee grounds used in instant coffee. Robusta coffee is known to be cheaper than other coffee bean strains, and it is very easy to grow. It does not require high-altitude areas for Robusta to grow, and is very disease-resilient. Robusta coffee beans make 30% of the world’s coffee products. It is also known for its high acidity and bitterness, and therefore has higher caffeine content.

Coffeol

Also known as Coffee oil. It is an essence of coffee that’s created by the coffee beans during the roasting process.

Cold-Water

Cold-water is a method where a small amount of cold water is given to the coffee grounds for almost 24 hours. The grounds are then strained, while the concentrated coffee can be used to create a drink with hot water. Cold-water method lessens the acidity of the coffee grounds, and lessens the body of the coffee.

Colombia

Colombia is a country where some of the finest coffee bean strains are grown. Colombia is also the headquarters of the Colombian Coffee Federation, which handles the production and trade of coffee in the country. Colombian coffee is often graded, with Supremo being the highest-valued coffee in the country. Colombia is home to the Bourbon coffee bean, a variant of the Arabica strain that’s considered as the finest among all of them.

Commercial Coffee

Commercial coffees are products that are generally sold in groceries, either as a ground coffee or as an instant coffee that can be blended just by mixing it with hot water. Commercial coffees are known for their brand names.

Complexity

A term for coffee tasters when defining the way the coffee provides a layer of flavors with every drink. It is often associated with the sensation of resonance and depth when drinking coffee, which most experts know well.

Continental Roast

See After Dinner Roast

Continuous Roasting

A method of continuously roasting coffee beans. As the beans are getting roasted, more beans are added to ensure consistency on the coffee being served.

Costa Rica

Some of the finest Costa Rican coffees are called as the Alajuela, Tres Rios and Heredi. These all provide a full body with a strong acidity, which makes Costa Rican coffee some of the best served in Central America.

Crema

This is a pale brown foamy substance that surrounds the tazzina of an espresso.

Cupping

A professional coffee taster term for a procedure where a sensory form of evaluation on the coffee beans are done. The beans are ground in front of the testers, and is mixed with hot water on a cup. This form of evaluation is one of the standard forms of coffee tasting.

D

Dark French Roast

This is a type of French Roast variant that’s close to black due to being roasted for a very long period of time. This variant is typically bittersweet with almost no acidity in it. Its aroma has the scent of charcoal, along with its taste that some may consider burnt already.

Dark Roast

Dark roast is simply the darker variant of coffee bean roast, and is known for its bitter flavor with less to no acidity.

Decaf

Decaf is a type of coffee where the caffeine content is eliminated to prevent its side effects.

Decaffeination

Decaffeination is a process where the beans are treated with a solvent, which fuses with the caffeine. The solvent with the caffeine content is then removed from the beans, perfectly eliminating the caffeine content without affecting other aspects of the coffee.

Defects

Defects are unpleasant characteristics found in coffee once tasted. The defects in flavor are often caused by an error during the production of the coffee grounds. Some of the common errors involve unripe fruit mixed onto the batch, bacteria that affected the fermentation process, and excessive moisture after the drying process.

Degassing

Degassing is a process where the coffee beans release carbon dioxide, which prevents the coffee from staling the oxygen around it.

Demitasse

A type of cup that’s often used when serving espresso. Also known as half-cup.

Demucilage

See Aquapulp.

Djimah

Also called as Jimma. It is a coffee bean strain that originally grew in Ethiopia. It is a low-acid coffee which has a very distinctive flavor that’s reminiscent of a taste that’s like medicine. It is not often branded as a specialty coffee due to its strange flavor.

Dominican Republic

A place where some of the finest coffee beans are grown, and is also known as a name of a particular coffee bean strain that grew in the same place. Dominican Republic coffee beans are known to have a medium level of richness and acidity.

Doppio

Also known as double espresso.

Doser

A device that’s loaded with a spring that dispenses three ounces of espresso. Three ounces of espresso is known to be the standard serving size for espresso drinks.

DP

This means double picked. This is a method wherein a coffee bean is hand picked in order to specifically acquire the best coffee beans, while easily identifying the imperfect beans so then it can be disposed right away. DP is the best means to get the finest quality coffee.

Drip

A method where hot water is used to settle onto the coffee grounds to easily extract the coffee drink out of the grounds.

Dry-Processed Coffee

Dry-process is one of the known techniques when producing coffee. This is where the husk of the fruit is removed to get the beans at an easier rate, since the cherries have been dried first. Drying the coffee cherries under the sun is the traditional method. But nowadays, dryers that are built specifically for this method have been developed for more efficiency in the production of dry-processed coffee. Dry-processing gives a more complex flavor compared to wet-processing. Take note that cheaper dry-processing techniques often result in bad flavors for most coffee tasting experts. That’s why most specialty coffees are still wet-processed.

E

Earthiness

Earthiness is known as an exotic taste for coffee, and is oftentimes mistaken or judged as a flavor defect. But the coffee is often defined as exotic or defective if the earthiness is weak or strong, respectively. The reason why earthiness is not oftentimes described as a defect is because there are areas around the world that have earthy coffee bean strains.

Ecuador

Ecuador is a country where high-quality coffee beans are sold. The coffee beans in this area often have fair acidity with a medium body.

El Salvador

El Salvador is a place where coffee bean strains that grow in it are known to have very low acid levels. The finest coffee bean strains that El Salvador cultivates are oftentimes Bourbon and Pacamara.

Espresso

Espresso is a type of coffee roast and brewing method where hot water is pressurized onto the coffee grounds to maximize flavor, acidity, body, caffeine and aroma.

Espresso Roast

See After Dinner Roast

Estate-Grown Coffee

Estate-grown coffee is a type of coffee ground produced on a mill. Speciality coffees are also known as estate-grown coffee in some areas. That’s why most specialty coffees are not labeled by country, but by the estate where it was cultivated from.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a country where coffee origin happened. They are known for their Harar coffee, which is a dry-processed type of coffee with a brilliant level of acidity with fruity tones. Most coffee beans that grew in Ethiopia are known to have a very thin body, with a fragrance of fruits and citrus.

European Roast

See After Dinner Roast

Excelso

Excelso is a known grade used in Colombia, and is also known as Supremo. This is the highest-ranking coffee grade in the country.

Extra

A term used for the second-best grade in Colombian coffee.

F

Fair Traded Coffee

This is a type of coffee that’s often sold by farmers at a very low price, hence the term “fair”.

Fermentation

An extremely important part of the coffee ground production process. Fermentation has two meanings when it comes to the production of coffee. The first one is the method where the sticky pulp of the coffee cherry is loosened to easily remove the coffee beans. Fermentation is also used as a term in evaluating the coffee bean if it has any defects during the fermentation part where the sugars of the coffee cherry is starting to ferment.

Filter Holder

Filter holder is a part of the espresso brewing process where a metallic object is used to hold the filter of the coffee grounds, and is clamped well onto the cup. This is used to directly serve the espresso onto the cup.

Filter Method

This is a method where the coffee is being poured onto the cup with the help of a filter that’s clamped onto the cup through a plastic holder. This ensures that the coffee will not have any grounds on the final product once served onto the cup.

Finish

This is a sensation used by coffee tasters once the coffee get swallowed.

Flavor

Flavor is one of the primary factors when defining the overall quality of a coffee bean. Flavor, along with acidity, body and aroma, are often used by coffee tasting professionals when evaluating a drink. Flavor is often defined once the body, acidity and aroma of the coffee has been sensed by the taster.

Flavored Coffee

Flavored coffee is a roasted coffee ground mixed with flavoring such as chocolate, caramel, etc.

Flavor Defects

See Defects

Flip Drip

This is a type of dripping method where the coffee is placed at a two-sided strainer located at the waist area of the coffee pot. The water is heated at a separate compartment, and then the pot gets flipped over. Once flipped, hot water will drip to the coffee on a different compartment.

Fluid Bed Roaster

The Fluid Bed roaster is a type of equipment that’s like a popcorn popper. It uses a column of hot air that’s forced in order to roast the coffee beans in a more agitated manner.

Fragrance

Fragrance is a cupping term that evaluates the aroma of coffee.

French Press

A french press is a brewing method that involves the use of the French Press. This method works by separating the spent grounds from a brewed coffee by pressing firmly towards the bottom of the apparatus using a mesh plunger.

French Roast

French roast is known as one of the darkest form of coffee roasting technique. The results are oftentimes a very dark coffee bean roast, where some might already seem black in color as well. It is often characterized by having a thin body and is bitter and sweet.

Froth

Froth is a type of milk that’s foamy in texture since the milk gets steamed, and is often used by baristas when preparing coffee.

Full-City Roast

See City Roast. It is just the same as City Roast in all aspects.

G

Ghimbi

An Ethiopian type of coffee that’s wet-processed.

Good Hard Bean

This is a grading term for Costa Rican coffee that grew in an altitude of around 3,000 to 4,000 feet.

Green Coffee

See Cherry. It is the raw form of coffee that has not been roasted.

Grind Size

A term used in the production of coffee grinding. This is used in order to determine if the grinding method can perfectly extract the caffeine and flavor of coffee at the same time.

Guatemala

Guatemala is known to have Strictly Hard Bean grade coffees, and had its coffee beans grown in popular regions such as Antigua. The coffee beans in Guatemala has a spicy and rich level of acidity with just the right body.

H

Haiti

Haiti is a country where the coffee beans are known to have low to no acidity, with a medium body and a rich aroma. Haitian Bleu is an association that distributes the Haiti coffee in the Unites States.

Hand Picking

See DP

Harar Coffee

See Ethiopia

Hard

This is known to be a term used for grading low-quality coffee.

Hard Bean

Hard Beans are grown in very high altitudes. On the other hand, soft bean is used as a term for those that are grown in very low altitudes. Higher altitudes are known to produce a fruit that matures at a slow rate, where the beans become harder and have less acid content. Hard beans are also known to have more flavor than the soft beans.

Hawaii

Hawaiian coffee is called as Kona, which is grown on at a region in the Big Island of Hawaii. Some Hawaiian islands nowadays got their coffee farms replaced pineapple and sugar farms due to Hawaiian coffee’s increasing popularity in the country’s market. Various areas in Hawaii such as Kauai, Molokai and Oahu are starting to gain worldwide recognition nowadays.

Heavy Roast

See French Roast

Heredia

A market term used for a well-known coffee in Costa Rica.

High-Grown

A term used for growing Arabica coffee beans at altitudes measuring 3,000 feet or higher. Several Latin American coffees have high-grown as a grade label, too.

High Roast

See City Roast

Huehuetenango

A market term used for a high quality Guatemalan coffee.

I

Immersion

Immersion is a technique where the extraction method involves the use of immersing coffee on water so then the water can extract the coffee flavor and aroma. The French Press is one of the most popular immersion techniques that’s widely used by many people.

India

India is another well-known country where coffee is grown. Indian coffee is known for its fair levels of body and acidity. Mysore is a term used in India for its finest quality coffee beans, and so as Monsooned Coffee.

Indonesia

Indonesian coffee is also very popular in the market, and is known for their earthy flavor which is why some enthusiasts treat coffee in the country as exotic. The famous locations in the country for coffee beans are Sumatra, Java and Timor. This is also the country where the famous Kopi Luwak is made.

Ismaili

A Yemeni coffee with high reputation. It is used as a market term for the said coffee. It is known to have pea-like bean that yields a superb cup quality, as what most coffee tasting experts would say to Ismaili coffee.

Italian Roast

A technique of coffee roasting where the coffee beans are dark with a bit of sweetness aside from being bitter. Some Italian Roast techniques also result in coffees being extremely dark to the point where some are nearly burnt black. But still, the quality is good despite the blackness of the other beans.

J

Jamaica

Home of the rare Blue Mountain coffee. The famous Blue Mountain Coffee is known for its very rich flavor, a thick body and a very smooth level of acidity and aroma. However, Blue Mountain coffee is known to be expensive due to its short supply since the coffee bean strain only grows on that specific area only. Take note that there’s a different type of coffee called Jamaican High Mountain, which is a cheaper variant of the Blue Mountain, but with less acidity and lighter body level.

Java

A location in Indonesia where the finest coffee beans of the country are grown. Java coffee is known for its low-key richness compared to most Indonesian coffee strains. It is also used for estate-grown coffee as well.

Jimma

See Djimah

Jinotega

A market term used for one of the finest coffees in Nicaragua

K

Kalossi

Kalossi is a region in Sulawesi. The coffee grown in the area is known for its thick and full body, an expansive flavor with a decent acidity level. The earthy flavor, that’s well-known in various Sulawesi coffee, is liked and disliked by many depending if they like earthy coffee flavor.

Kenya

Coffee grown in Kenya is known for having high acid levels that’s reminiscent of wine. It also has a vibrant cup presence, with tones of berry and fruit for its flavor and aroma. Kenyan coffee beans are considered as one of the finest beans in the world.

Kilimanjaro

This is a market term used for the coffee grown in Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

Kona

Kona is a Hawaiian coffee found in one of the coasts of Hawaii. The coffee is known to have a very good balance, with a medium body and just the right acidity. It has a rich flavor and aroma.

Kopi Luwak

A world-famous coffee that’s cultivated from the fecal matter of the civet cat, an animal in Sumatra that feeds on coffee cherries that grow there. Civet cats are called as Luwak in Indonesia, hence the name. Kopi Luwak is one of the most expensive coffee around the world, and is widely exported due to its popularity. It has an earthy flavor, but is notable for its superb sweetness with a full body.

L

La Minita Farm

A renown estate in the Tarrazu region of Costa Rica. Their very careful procedures in preparing coffee makes their blend world-famous.

Latte

Latte is the English equivalent of milk in the Italian language. Latte is a type of beverage made with coffee and milk set at a 1:3 ratio, respectively. Usually, a shot of espresso is added with lots of milk once Latte is served to customers in restaurants and cafes.

Latte Art

A form of art done by designing the foam left by froth or latte after placing it on top of an espresso shot. It does not change the flavor, but is perfect for aesthetic purposes.

Lavado Fino

A market term used for the best coffee grown in Venezuela

Light Espresso Roast

See City Roast

Light French Roast

See City Roast

Light Roast

A light roast is a coffee that’s lightly roasted only, providing a light brown color once done. It is known for its high acidity with a grain-like flavor. Light coffee roasts are not used for specialty coffees, and some consider this as somewhat exotic.

Limu

This is a market term used for an Ethiopian coffee that’s known for its fragrant and floral-toned coffee that’s wet processed to perfection.

Lintong

A market term used for the best Sumatran coffee ever sold in the area.

Lungo

Lungo is a type of espresso that’s extracted for an extended period of time compared to the common espresso. It is less strong than espresso as it uses more hot water.

Luwak

See Kopi Luwak.

M

Macchiato

A macchiato is a type of coffee drink served in many restaurants and cafes around the world. Macchiato is done by staining the espresso with frothed or steamed milk. It is often served on a tall glass. Variants of macchiato such as caramel macchiato have existed lately to add more flavor to the famous drink.

Macchinetta

See Flip Drip

Machine Dried

Machine dried coffee is done through a technique where a special dryer is used right after hand picking the coffee cherries. This replaced the old technique of sun drying the coffee, which is done for many centuries already. Cup quality is said to have improved dramatically ever since machine drying techniques were introduced.

Malawi

Malawi is a country in Africa that’s known to have coffee beans that are soft and very round.

MAM

This is known to be the acronym for Medellin, Armenia and Manizales. These three areas are where the finest coffee beans of Colombia grow. Colombian coffee that has the MAM label are known to be superb in terms of quality compared to most coffee beans sold there.

Mandheling

This is the market term for the most famous coffee found in Sumatra.

Maracaibo

This is a market term used for one of the types of coffee served in Venezuela.

Maragogipe

Maragogipe is another variant of the Arabica coffee bean strain that’s unique than its counterparts because of its large bean size. It originated in Brazil, but eventually got to other Southern American countries, particularly Mexico. This type of Arabica coffee bean is losing popularity due to the tree producing less fruit than other Arabica coffee bean types.

Matagalpa

This is the market term for a well-known coffee in Nicaragua

Matari

Matari is a market term for one of the best coffees found in Yemen. The Matari beans are known for its winy acidity and sharp flavor.

Mature Coffee

Mature coffee is a type of coffee bean that’s stored in warehouses for up to three years. Aged coffee required more than three years to develop, that’s why more coffee makers prefer mature coffee as it can be harvested quicker. Mature coffee is known to be held longer in warehouses than Old Crop Coffee.

Mbeya

A market term used for the coffee sold at the southern areas of Tanzania.

Medium Roast

Also known as American Roast, and is the standard bearer of the most balanced coffee roasting technique.

Merida

It is a market term for a sweet and delicate type of coffee in Venezuela.

Mexico

Mexico is one of the countries around the world that produced a lot of coffee bean types. The Mexican coffee beans such as Oaxaca and Pluma are known for their delicate acidity with a light body. However, those located at Chiapas are known for their rich acidity.

Micro-Lot

Micro-lots are specialty coffees grown in a small farm, compared to estate-grown coffees. This is known to be rare and bears a very high quality due to the traditional techniques and other secrets that the farm can do for the coffee production.

Microwave Brewers

A type of brewing equipment that works just like a microwave oven. There are open-pot microwave brewers and filter-drip microwave brewers. However, this is not as popular as the other brewers.

Middle Eastern Coffee

The middle eastern method of serving coffee starts with grinding the coffee into fine powder. After that, it is sweetened and brought to a boil.

Mild

The term is used for high-quality Arabica coffee beans.

Milling

Milling is a production process for coffee where the parchment skin of the coffee cherry is removed by a machine after wet processing. For dry processing, the entire dried husk is removed to extract the beans once it is milled.

Mocha

Mocha is a popular type of coffee drink that’s served with coffee and chocolate. Mocha is also a name of a coffee bean in Yemen that’s known for its chocolatey tone and winy acidity. The Harar coffee beans found in Ethiopia is also known as Mocha in some parts of the world.

Mocha Java

This is a blend of Yemeni Mocha and the Java Arabica coffee beans. The ratio is set as one part for Yemen Mocha and two parts for Arabica coffee beans. This is often sold as a commercial coffee around different parts of the world, and is a very famous blend as well. Mocha Java is also the oldest coffee blend ever discovered and made, making it the pioneer of coffee blends around the world.

Monsooned Coffee

Monsooned coffee is known for its higher body level and reduced acid levels, as the process of dry processing the coffee is through exposing it on monsoon winds. This is a practice that’s often done in India. See India.

Moshi

This is a market term for the coffee found at the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

Mysore

See India

N

Natural Coffee

The natural procedure of coffee is also called as dry-processing. Dry processing involves the use of the sun to dry the coffee cherries into a husk, and then a miller is used to extract the beans out of the dried out husk. When it comes to the natural processing of coffee, the cherries are often picked carelessly compared to handpicking it. After all, natural processing of coffee is much cheaper in terms of budget, which is just right for the careless picking of coffee as it also costs less. This is mostly done on coffee bean strains that are meant for instant coffee and other cheaper blends.

Nariño

A part of southern Colombia that produces some of the best specialty coffees around the world.

Neapolitan Macchinetta

See Flip Drip

Neapolitan Roast

This is a darket form of roast meant for espresso, but is not black unlike other roast types.

New Crop

New crop is a term used for coffee that’s going to be delivered for roasting after processing it. The new crop coffees are known to be very high in acid, and still has a bright color since it is not yet roasted.

New England Roast

See Cinnamon Roast

New Guinea

This is a type of coffee that’s grown in Papua New Guinea. These coffee beans are often grown in large estates, making it a specialty coffee. It is known to have medium acidity, with a fragrant aroma that’s reminiscent of flowers. The processing methods done by the estate farms are also traditional, guaranteeing top quality coffee beans all the time. However, New Guinea coffee is known to have a very bad taste if processed the wrong way.

New Orleans Coffee

New Orleans coffee is known to be a dark roast coffee mixed with a chicory root for added flavor. The New Orleans coffee is considered as a specialty coffee if there is no chicory root added on it.

Nicaragua

Nicaraguan coffee beans are known to be excellent in terms of quality, but other beans such as Arabica are known to be far superior to them. The Nicaragua coffee beans are known for its medium body and strong acidity with a rich flavor.

O

Oaxaca

It is a market name used for the coffee grown in Southern Mexico, particularly Oaxaca where the coffee’s market name came from.

Ocoa

A market name for a renown coffee found in the Dominican Republic

Old Arabicas

Some of the varieties of the Arabica coffee bean strain are known to be the founders of the Arabica coffee bean when it was discovered. Varieties such as Bourbon are also considered as Old Arabica coffee bean because of its origins. A lot of coffee experts say that the Old Arabicas are superior in terms of overall quality compared to the modern types of Arabica blends and beans.

Old Crop

Old Crop coffees are those that are stored in warehouses for a long period of time. Most say that the timeframe allotted to develop old crop coffee could last for up to a year. Take note that Aged Coffee is the longest among all of the storing techniques to lessen the acidity of the coffee, while Mature coffee takes a longer timeframe than old crop. Mature coffee is the most famous among the three as the storing time is just long enough for the coffee to be sold already in the market.

Old Java

Old Java is a term used for Arabica coffee in Java that was held in warehouses for two to three years. Therefore, this can be considered as the Mature Coffee for Java coffee seeds. This can dramatically reduce acidity while improving the body of the coffee. Java during the 19th century has a distinctive flavor, and the technique of Old Java replicates the quality of this historical version of the Java coffee.

Old Tavern Coffee

The Old Tavern Coffee are produced from an estate in Jamaica that grows the finest Blue Mountain coffee seeds.

Open-Pot

Open pot method is a brewing technique where the ground coffee is steeped using a pot heated on a stove or fireplace. Strainers are used in order to filter out the drink from the coffee grounds steeped on hot water. This is the oldest known brewing method that ever existed, and is perfect to do if your coffee maker is under repair.

Organic Coffee

This is a type of coffee that’s certified by agencies in coffee for beans that are processed without the use of chemicals such as pesticides.

P

Parchment Coffee

Parchment Coffee is a type of wet-processed coffee that’s wrapped on parchment skin before delivery. The parchment is removed once the beans are going to be milled.

Pare

See Mbeya

Patio Drying

A drying technique where the coffee beans are placed in patios where the sun’s heat is. The sun takes care of the drying technique. This is a traditional technique used for centuries already.

Peaberry

Also known as Caracol. It is a small and round bean that forms if the coffee cherry only has one seed, since most coffee beans have two seeds in it. The peaberries are often separated from the others as it may affect the taste of the regular coffee beans. Peaberries can still be roasted to make its own type of coffee, which is known to have a light body with higher acidity than the regular beans.

Percolation

Percolation is almost any type of coffee brewing technique where hot water is filtered to a bed of ground coffee. The percolator is then pumped with the hot water, which is then forced up to a tube and goes straight to the coffee ground bed.

Peru

Peru is known to be a popular country for coffee. The coffee found in Peru is known to be very aromatic and has a mild acidity to it. Some of the well-known market terms in Peru are Picchu and Chanchamayo.

Piston

A piston machine is a type of espresso machine that operates using a piston in order to force the water brewing process towards a very high pressure level.

Plunger Pot

See French Press

Polishing

Polishing is a term used for an optional process in making coffee grounds and milling. This is where the beans are exposed to friction to remove the mucilage and innermost skin. This only helps in improving the appearance of the coffee bean, but does not help in improving its overall quality. Polishing is treated as an optional process because it is not favored by many buyers.

Portafilter

Also called as Filter Holder. It is a metallic object that has a plastic handle which is clamped to the cup.

Pour-Over

Pour-over is an extraction technique discovered in Germany. This is where boiling water is poured very slowly onto a filter cone that has the ground coffee.

Primo Lavado

Also known as Prime Washed. This is a grade term for Mexican coffee that’s blended with the best coffee beans grown in the country.

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rican coffee are specialty coffees that lost its touch before, but regained its reputation back due to modern techniques in growing some of the best coffee such as Yauco coffee. The Yauco coffee is known to have the same qualities as the Blue Mountain coffee beans, though albeit inconsistent when the coffee is produced.

Pulping

Pulping is the process of removing the outer skin of the coffee cherry.

Pump Machine

This is a type of espresso machine that operates with a pump that forces the hot water through high pressures in order to maximize the aroma and flavor of the coffee.

Pyrolysis

This is the chemical process that occurs when roasting. This is where the coffee that’s roasted breaks down its fat and carbohydrate content towards the coffee oil, releasing all the necessary aroma and flavor that defines coffee itself in general.

Q

Q Grading

A grading term used by coffee experts called Q graders. Q graders evaluate the coffee in question to determine its value in the market.

Quaker

The quaker is a term used for defective coffee beans.

R

Regular Roast

See American Roast
Richness

A balance in acidity, flavor and body.

Rio

A type of dry-processed coffee beans found in Brazil. The drying process for Rio coffee is special, as a certain micro-organism invades the coffee to give it a iodine flavor. Some North American coffee tasters find Rio coffee to have defect on its flavor. On the other hand, those who live in the Middle East and Balkan countries like Rio coffee so much.

Ristretto

The ristretto is an Italian word for restricted. This is an espresso that’s pulled short with lesser water quantity compared to the standard espresso coffee drink. This is often considered as an espresso with a very concentrated flavor.

Roasting

A part of the coffee production process where the coffee beans are browned in order to lessen its acidity and provide the world-renown flavor that coffee has. There are various roasting techniques, ranging from light to dark roast. Lighter roasts are known for its high acidity and fruity or floral aroma, while darker roasts are more on the bitter side that most people know, and has less acid content.

Roast Date

Roast date is a term used by coffee producers to know the freshness of the beans based on the date where the cherries are harvested. The freshness of roasted coffee lasts for up to three months.

Roasting Degree

The degrees of heat used for the roasting technique is observed to know if the coffee beans will be roasted light, medium or dark.

Roasting Profile

This is a term used by producers to define the airflow used for the roasting process. The airflow controls the level of heat used when roasting, which also determines how fast the coffee will be brought to its desired roasting level.

Robusta

See Coffea Canephora

S

Sanani

Sanani is a market term for coffees grown in Sana’a, the capital of Yemen. This is a less acidic type of Yemen coffee.

Santo Domingo

This is a type of coffee sold in the Dominican Republic, which to be very rich and high in acid.

Santos

Also called as Bourbon Santos. This is a type of coffee that’s grown in Brazil, and is famous for its high quality. It is a type of coffee that has a fruity flavor and aroma, with higher acid levels than other types found in Brazil.

SCA

The Specialty Coffee Association is composed of experts in the coffee industry when defining the overall quality of specialty coffees around the world. Their headquarters is located in Long Beach, California.

Semi-Processed

A term used for semi-wet and semi-dry-processed coffee. This procedure is done by removing the outer skin of the cherry, then drying it under the sun or on a dryer. This is a mixture of the dry and wet methods, and is often practiced in Brazil.

Shade Grown Coffee

See Bird-Friendly

Sidamo

This is a market term used for a southern Ethiopian coffee that’s unique for its light to mid body level with a floral and fruity combination for its aroma and flavor.

Silverskin

This is the inner skin of the coffee cherry.

Single-Origin Coffee

This is an unblended coffee that came from beans from a specific farm in a certain region in a country. This is often considered as rare especially if they grow specialty coffee.

Sivitz Roaster

See Fluid Bed Roaster

Soft Bean

The soft bean coffee is a term used for coffee beans grown in low altitude areas, compared to hard beans. Lower altitudes produces fruit faster, which is perfect for mass production. Soft bean coffee is known to be less acidic, but has less flavor as well. This is favored by those who would like to produce cheaper coffee variants.

Spanish Roast

See French Roast

Specialty Coffee

Specialty coffee is a type of exquisite coffee that’s carefully processed using secret methods done by estate farmers. This is also a practice of selling coffee by defining its origin, roast technique and other details such as reasons why it is a special blend as well.

Steam Wand

This is a protruding pipe found on espresso makers. This is responsible for giving the steam for milk froths.

Straight Coffee

See Single-origin coffee

Strip Picking

Strip picking is a harvesting method where the coffee cherries are stripped from the branch, along with its leaves. This is often done with a machine, and results in harvesting immature and unripe coffee cherries as well, which might result in undesirable results. This is often done to coffee that’s intended for mass production, such as instant coffee and other low quality coffee blends.

Sumatra

Sumatra is one of the best producers of coffee around the world. World-class coffee such as Kopi Kuwak came from Sumatra. The finest coffee in Sumatra grows around Lake Toba and Lake Biwa. They are known for their vibrant acidity and earthy flavor. The distinctive earthy flavor of Sumatra coffee is considered exotic by those who like it, and as a flavor defect by those who less prefer the earthy flavor.

Sun Drying

Sun drying is the classic method of dry-processing, where the beans are dried under the sun on a patio or other areas. Also, see patio drying

Sun Grown

The exact opposite of Bird-Friendly growing or Shade Growing. Most coffee beans, such as Arabica, are grown under a canopy shade, but not all of them. Other Arabica coffee beans can also be grown under the sun with no harsh effects on it.

Supremo

See Excelso.

Sustainable Coffee

This is often called as organic coffee, and is considered environmentally friendly from production to the point where the coffee is sold.

Swiss Water

A process for decaffeination where a hot water or steam is used for removing caffeine, as opposed to the known method of using substances for caffeine removal.

Syphon

A type of coffee maker that uses vacuum pressure in order to properly brew the coffee.

T

Tamper

A pestle-like apparatus used in espresso makers. It has a flat end that transfers the coffee beans onto the filter.

Tanzania

Tanzania is known to be a popular producer of coffee. Their best coffee is known for its full body and rich flavor, with a winy acidity that makes it similar to Kenyan coffee.

Tapachula

This is known as the coffee growing state in the country of Mexico. The best Tapachula coffees are known to be located at the southeast regions of Chiapas, which is located near the border of Guatemala. Tapachula is also a name of the town around these areas, where the coffee might have originally came from. The Tapachula coffee is known to have a brisk acidity, along with a medium body depending on how it is roasted. It has a very delicate flavor, which makes it famous around Mexico.

Tarrazu

This is a market term used for one of the finest coffees found in Costa Rica.

Terrior

This is a device that’s used to press ground coffee firmly so then it can be prepared for the extraction process.

Thermal Block

The thermal block is a system used for heating the water in espresso makers. It is an apparatus made with pipe coils stored inside the heating element of the espresso machine.

Timor

Timor coffee is a single-origin coffee found in the East Timor region. Timor coffee is well-known around the world in the 20th century. But due to a independency dispute against Indonesia, East Timor is known to have a conflict in trade. Gladly, assistance agencies in the coffee industry made sure that Timor coffee can still be sold properly around the world for coffee enthusiasts. The full body of the Timor coffee makes it world-class, and has a very expansive flavor. It also has a very low acid level, depending on how it is correctly processed. Timor coffee when processed incorrectly can produce a flavor defect, which most define as musty.

Toraja

Also called as Kalossi coffee. It is a market term used for coffee found in Sulawesi.

Traditional Process

Also called as European process. It is a technique of decaffeination where solvents are used to extract the caffeine out of the green coffee beans before it gets processed.

Tres Rios

A market term used for good quality Costa Rican coffees.

Trigonelline

This is an alkaloid compound in coffee just like caffeine. The diuretic capabilities of the coffee to our body is all thanks to this compound.

Turkish Coffee

See Middle Eastern Coffee

Typica

This is a variant of the Arabica coffee, and is second in popularity to Bourbon. Typica is also considered as an Old Arabica coffee bean, along with Bourbon. Most of the finest Latin American coffee blends are usually made of Typica as it grows in abundance around the Latin American countries.

U

Uganda

Uganda is known to have one of the finest coffee, which is called Bugishu. The Bugishu coffee is known for its winy acidity. It also bears some of the top qualities found in African coffees, such as the fruity and floral flavor and aroma. However, Kenya coffee is known to be far superior than Ugandan coffee due to Kenya coffee’s light body.

V

Vacuum Filter

This is a unique method compared to other brewing techniques. Brewing water is drawn by a vacuum in order for it to be distributed to the coffee grounds.

Varietal Coffee

This is a term used in the specialty coffee industry. This is a term that’s used to define an unblended coffee bean that’s located from a single farm in a certain country. However, the world “Single Origin Coffee” is a much favored term by some writers around the world. Therefore, Varietal Coffee is a term that’s typically exclusive within the specialty coffee association only.

Venezuela

Some of the coffee in Venezuela are known to be reminiscent of Colombian coffee types. Only the Merida coffee is the most unique among the Venezuela coffee because of its sweet flavor.

Viennese Coffee

This is a type of coffee that’s produced through a rare method called the Vienesse Roast. This is also a name of a coffee drink that’s topped with whipped cream.

Viennese Roast

This is a term used for a coffee roast that’s a little bit darker than the American roast level. The Vienesse roast is known to have less acid levels compared to the American roast, and has a smooth body and flavor. This term is also used for roasting a mixture of various coffee beans until it gets dark brown.

V 60

This is a signature brewer that uses the drip method. The term 60 came from the angle set on the cone where the coffee is being held at for brewing.

Vintage Coffee

See Aged Coffee

W

Wallenford Estate

The Wallenford Estate is once the most popular producer of the Blue Mountain coffee in Jamaica. But due to more estates growing around the Blue Mountain region, the Wallenford Estate is just one of the finest out there, as the competitors are quite good as well.

Washed Coffee

Another term for wet-processed coffee

Wet-Processed Coffee

This is a preparation of coffee where the cherries’ skin and pulp are removed from the coffee bean without the need to dry the coffee anymore. Oftentimes, fresh coffee cherries are immediately wet-processed once it’s ready for production. Most of the best coffee beans in the world are prepared through the means of this method, as it takes less time and can increase the tartness of the coffee. A known process in wet-processing is that the coffee skins are pulped, then the wet beans are fermented to loosen the sticky pulp. As a result, the coffee bean can be extracted easier once washed. Also, see Aquapulp.

Whole-Bean Coffee

A type of coffee that already underwent the whole roasting process, but is not yet ground.

Y

Yauco

See Puerto Rico

Yemen

Yemen coffee is known to be a single-origin coffee found at the southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula. It is located at the border of the Red Sea as well. The mountainous regions of Yemen is known to be the perfect ground for cultivating some of the finest coffee sold around the world. This is where the coffee bean called Mocha is made, and not in Ethiopia. This is known to be one of the world’s oldest cultivated coffee type that ever existed. It is also known for its full body and rich acidity that’s reminiscent of wine. Coffee in Yemen is also known as Arabian Mocha.

Yirgacheffe

This is the market name used for one of the best types of coffee grown in Ethiopia. It is known for its floral and fruity combination for its acidity. It is also high-toned with a very complex flavor.

Z

Zambia

There are some estates located at the eastern Zambia region that’s distributed in North America nowadays. The reason for its growing popularity is because of its less acidic profile, compared to most African coffee types. Zambia coffee is also regarded as a specialty coffee in the United States.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe coffee is known to have a very excellent cup presence for coffee tasters around the world. The winy acidity of the Zimbabwe coffee is said to be unique compared to other coffee found in Africa. Therefore, Zimbabwe coffee is often ranked as number 2, with Kenya coffee being the first. The Chipinga region is known to be home of the finest Zimbabwe coffee ever grown.

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